New Range of Medicines For Asthma

A variety of new asthma drugs are under research by many pharmaceutical companies. Unfortunately progress tends to be very slow, as it takes as much as 10 years to get FDA approval start commercial production and bring the drug to the market. Costs too are prohibitive as it takes up to $350 million to bring a new molecule into the market.

One interesting development is older drugs used for treatment of other diseases like arthritis, cancer etc. are used for the treatment of asthma. They are being found to be more effective and costs are low. One such drug is Nedocromil sodium a medicine used for arthritis. Nedocromil, commercial name Tilade is more effective and potent than Cromolyn sodium. The ketotifen groups of drugs are new range of medicines for asthma. Ketotifens do not have any broncho dilataing action but they will prevent the asthma symptoms from occurring. It is not a rescue medicine but a preventive one. They have antihistamine and anti inflammatory properties. They have to be taken for several weeks before the results are visible. Ketotifens are available as an ophthalmic solution and oral drug. The ophthalmic solutions are used in the treatment of allergic eye problems like conjunctivitis, itchy and red eyes. The oral form is used for the treatment of asthma.

Several new asthma drugs that are derived from the ketotifen family Zaditen are quite promising. The active ingredient of zatiden is ketotifen hydrogen fumarate. Side effects of these drugs are minimal like drowsiness and weight gain. .Zatidine is normally prescribed for those asthma patients who have hives, sinus problems or hay fever.

Nowadays antibiotics are used widely in asthma treatment. While they may not help in all cases they do help when acute sinus infections and asthma coexist. There are Vaccines available for certain type of asthma caused by influenza virus. Annual flu shot can prevent this type of asthma. Asthma Patients should also get pneumonia vaccine particularly if they are 40 years and older.

Drug Formulation: An Overview of Types and Applications

The formulation of a drug is critical to the effectiveness of its delivery and is specifically chosen by the pharmaceutical manufacturer for the most positive outcome. Pharmaceutical formulations come in a variety of types that can be broken into larger categories based on their method of application. These main categories include oral, topical, nasal, ophthalmic and intravenous formulations. Choosing the proper formulation for a new drug is based on a variety of factors, primarily absorption and the target of the drug.

Some of the most common medications come as oral formulations, which include softgels, tablets and solutions. Solutions are typically used in situations where speed of delivery is a priority, such as medications that treat cold and cough symptoms. An additional benefit of oral solution formulations is ease of ingestion for sensitive or delicate systems, such as those of children or the elderly. Tablets are a standard formulation for water-soluble medications with stable structures due to their convenient storage and ingestion. Softgels are often used for drugs that best absorb in mixed alcohol or glycerol mixtures.

Topical formulations are applied directly to the skin, while ophthalmic formulations are given to the eye. Nasal application, often used for sinus problems, is also used in situations that require the most rapid delivery. Intravenous injections, though not as frequently used in commercial medications, are the preferred method of delivery for patients already in hospitals or for certain long-term treatments such as insulin.

Determining the best formulation for a new pharmaceutical is done through a complex series of formulation studies. These studies review a series of factors that contribute to the bioavailability of the drug, which is the way the body absorbs the medication. Some of the attributes that are crucial to proper formulation are particle size, solubility, pH and stability. Once the physical factors of the new drug have been accounted for, commercial and consumer factors must be addressed, including the shelf stability, appearance and ease of consumption of the drug.

Specific targets for a drug may require unusual formulations. Some drugs that are intended for use in a wider range of situations may come in a variety of formulations for ease of application. This is particularly useful when medications are adapted for use with children, as liquid solutions are easier and quicker to ingest. Finding the best formulation for a drug ensures that it will be as effective and successful as possible.

Effective Pet Meds for Your Sick Furry Friend

When your beloved pet gets sick, the whole household can be turned upside down. Unlike people, your dog or cat cannot let you know what hurts or what is wrong. But your veterinarian can help deduce the cause of the problem and prescribe the right medicine to get your pet up and moving around quickly.

Allergy

Yes, pets have allergies. And the symptoms can sometimes be worse than the allergy. For example, some dogs develop pain and severe itching as a result of their allergies. An allergy is actually an over-reaction or hypersensitivity of the immune system to a particular substance, which can include such allergens as pollens, flea saliva, etc. The symptoms usually include itching, but can also affect the eyes and the respiratory or digestive systems.

Dogs are prone to at least five common allergies:

1. Fleas
2.Inhalants
3.Food
4.Contact
5.Bacterial Hypersensitivity

One treatment is amitriptyline, which is a tricyclic antidepressant that can help control behavior problems in dogs and cats, but can also control some types of pain and severe itching. If your dog has a skin allergy, the veterinarian may prescribe Atopica, which is an oral form of cyclosporine that helps to control skin allergies. Another common treatment is diphenhydramine, which is the generic name of the brand-name drug Benadryl. This medication is given to treat an allergic reaction to drugs or an environmental allergen. While it is well-tolerated, you can expect this medication to make your pet sleepy. It is available over the counter in capsules, chewable tablets, an oral elixir and syrup formats.

Eye

When your dog or cat gets an eye infection, a common treatment is B.N.P. Triple Antibiotic Ophthalmic Ointment for Pets. It contains neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc. This solution or ointment can treat surface bacterial infections of the eye – both in the cornea and in the conjunctiva. The veterinarian may also prescribe Gentamicin Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment USP for either your dog or cat. It is commonly prescribed to treat conjunctival infections and infections on the cornea.

Ears

The ears on your dog or cat are one of the touchiest parts of their bodies. They are prone to topical infections, bacterial infections and fungus. If your pet’s ears experience any of these problems, the veterinarian may direct you to flush out their ears using DermaPet MalAcetic Otic flush, which is made with ketoconazole and hydrocortisone broad spectrum cleanser. You should shake the container well before administering the prescribed dosage into the ears.

If your cat, kittens, dog or puppies develop ear mites, one treatment of choice is Acarexx (ivermectin) Otic Suspension. Ivermectin, a topical solution, is an anti-parasite drug that can get rid of ear mites. It should not be used in kittens or puppies younger than 6 weeks old. And beware that some pets have developed an allergic reaction to this and similar products.

Heart/blood pressure/respiratory

Just like their owners, some dogs and cats can develop heart problems, elevated blood pressure and respiratory deficiencies. If your beloved pet has been diagnosed with heart problems, the veterinarian may prescribe Atenolol tablets to treat heart disease and lower its blood pressure. Atenolol, also used to treat humans, is a beta-blocker that slows and regulates the heart rate and causes the heart to work more efficiently. Unlike some medications, Atenolol will need to be taken for the rest of your pet’s life.

Another medicine often prescribed to humans, but used to treat dogs and cats, is Plavix. Plavix is an anti-platelet medicine and anticoagulant that keeps your pet’s blood from forming clots. It is often prescribed to prevent arterial thromboembolism, as well as systemic arterial embolism.

Hormone/endocrine

If your dog develops a thyroid disorder, the doctor may prescribe Canine Thyroid Chewable Tablets (levothyroxine sodium), which stimulate metabolism, growth, development and differentiation of tissues – just like the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism usually occurs in older or middle-aged dogs. Cats can be prescribed levothryoxine for shorter periods of time to treat hyperthyroidism.

Be aware that long-term use can cause osteoporosis (bone loss) in your pet. It can also cause an interaction with other medications, including antidepressants, digoxin, epinephrine, estrogens, insulin, ketamine, norepinephrine and warfarin.

Urinary tract infections/kidneys

If your dog or cat has developed compromised kidneys, or suffers from frequent urinary tract infections, your veterinarian may prescribe Epakitin Powder, a nutritional supplement that supports renal function. Epakitin powder helps increase the amount of fluid in the colon, which softens the stool. It can also increase the amount of ammonia that is excreted in the stool. It is indicated in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It should not be given to pets with diabetes or those animals that are dehydrated, pregnant or nursing. If you want your pets to live as long as possible, with the best possible quality of life, be sure you provide the best possible pet medications.